Prof. Dr. Metin AYISIGI
The famous epigram by Ataturk the Great, Peace in the homeland, peace in the world, is a basic principle in what it makes all nations to reach prosperity and hapiness and to direct them well advenced civcilization era and in what Turkey reachs to contemporary civilization level.
With the aim of starting diplomatic realationships among neighboring countries, Turkey founded in 1923 in above mentioned basic principle framework, took the first step in order to improve the diplomatic relationships between two countries by signing the friendship agreement with Bulgaria.
Bulgaria entered into Lozan Agreemant signed in 1923 by the parts dealing with Black Sea and the Straits. Turkey took important political steps by supporting Bulagaria’s openning to the Aegean sea in the talks held in Lozan.
After Lozan agreement, Turkey aimed at improving frendly realations with Balkan countries. The sympathy to Bulgaria, Bulgarian bureaucracy, and Atatürk’s oficial work as a military attache in Sofia during the first world war years pozitively influenced the realationships with Bulgaria. Atatürk also has been closely interested in Turkish monority’ proplems by establishing contact with Turkish entellectuals.
The Period of Farming Party and Reformist Policies (1918-1934)
Applications of decions held by Neuilly Peace Agrement on protecting the minorities at certain degree pozitively affected the Turks’ education question in Bulgaria. Some schools are built by the state’s support, to solve finacial problems, some Turkish school are ensured income sources, like fields, postures and groves in some regions. The numbers of Turkish schools have increased in this manner. According to Bulgarian Statistic, the numbers of Turkish schools mounted to 1712 in 1921/1922 course year. A State Turk Teacher School in 1919 (Dar’ul Muallim’in) and “Nüvvab” School training some subjects mostly religiously in context came open in 1922.
After 1919, the self adequacy policy are appropriated. The government established the Farm Party in the result of the elections held in the same year. Alexander Stambuliski, the leader of Farm Party, made some attemps to make land reform to come true and alone came into power in 1920.
The Turks in Bulgaria helped to Anatolia via the associations found among themselves and Hilal-ı Ahmer during National Struggle Period. The Turks living in Varna, Eski Cuma, Filibe, Karinabat respectively sent 40. 495 leva, 30. 000 leva, 425 ottoman liras and 16. 590 leva to the Anatolia. In addition, Bulgarian government secretly sent a famous representative of farm Association and a commitee with tree mumbers, leaded by deputy Grozkov, to Ankara.
Stoyan Omarçevski, the minister of education in Farming Party, has made an education reform covering the Turks in Bulgaria started and was successful to a great degree. A mentality Change in Bulgarian Education history was enjoyed by the attempts of Farming Party. A fund formed by the decisons held by govenrnment and the mınicipalities was made to ensure subsidy for Turkish schools. Also, Bulgarian was no more an obligatory language, and Turk inspectors were assigned in order to control Turk schools.
Lands by 5068 decare for schools in Sumlu and 2523 decare for schols in Varna region, totally by 7594 decare lands were given in 1921-1922 course year, and the same lands were distributed in 1922-1923 course year.
In addition, Bulgarian Farming Party Government sent general Morkov to Turkey in order to meet with Mustafa Kemal and get diplomatic realtions started. Morkov has tree times met with Mustafa Kemal in a friendly manner in order to solve the problem of the future of Turks-Bulgarian relations in Izmir. During these meetings, Morkov wanted Turkey’s support about Bulgar’s openning over Thrace to Aegean sea. After listening the Bulgarian commitee, Mustafa Kemal says that we easily reach an egrement with Bulgaria with no invasion intent and that we need a friend country in the Balkans, for this reason, the Bulgarians gives the best answer to our geographic, diplomatic and economic needs, and that friendships between our people makes both you and us more powerful and independent. These thoughts were important steps in order to get diplomatic realations with Bulgaria started.
The Turks in Bulgaria still remember the period of Stambuliski government as golden era for the Muslims. This state man, knowing Bulgarian national benefits wery well, accepts both the importance of good relations with Turkey and understand that there exist no harm for Bulgar in giving freedom and rights for Turks. During his administaration, he regognized a wide tolerance for the Muslims.
After Stambuliski were removed from pover in July in 1923, Turks-Bulgarian realations came to stop and Turkhis governmnent abstained with Tzakov government in diplomatic relations. But the realations had started after Western States recognized Bulgaria.
The good realations are the result of army friendship in the first World war, sharing common destiny, need for farmer support, the Türks being 80 percent farmer, important changes made in the favor of the minority rights in then States laws.
The success of Turkey in National Struggle and achieving the independence made the Turkish youth in Bulgaria very happy. In this way, many youth clubs with cultural and sportive aims were founded and they became, in a shorh run, diffused to the Turkish regions in Bulgaria. The name of Turkish Sport Asociation in Bulgaria changed as a Turan in Varna Congress held in 1926. Turan Asociations with Kemalist doctrine were in a short time spread to unities where the Turks lived. As a publication agency of the very association, the newspaper, named as Turan, was issued by using new Turkish alphabet. Turan Association, efective in forming the Turkish consciousness and spreading the Kemalist thoughts, had been abolished in the following year when eighteenth and last congress was held in Ruscuk in 1933. When it was abolished, the Association had 95 branches and five thousand active members.
Changes in education affairs in Turkey, especially alphabet revolution, being one of the biggest successes in republic period, begin to be applied in Bulgaria too. After Republic of Turkey gave up using old alphabet in 1928, Turkish Teachers Association in Bulgaria accepted new alphabet and started to use new alphabet in 1928-1929 course year. The book with first alphabet is prepared by Sukru Bey, a teacher from Filibe. This book was published by Shikago Printing House in Hasköy (Haskova) in 1928.
Czar Boris says on new alphabet application as follows: “This is Atatürk’s Thesis. The Turks in our country sholud use this”. Because of this, President Mustafa Kemal Atatürk thanks to Czar Boris and Bulagarian government, going on saying that this action will pozitively contribute to friendly realations between two countries, and it will help easy the educational and cultural affairs for Turks in Bulgaria.
Turkey and Bulgaria Friendship Agreement and Residence Permit Contract in 1925
An residence contract is added to the agreement between Turkey and Bulgaria held in 1925 in Ankara. The first Turkish ambassador and Bulgarian ambassador presented their reliance letter in 1924 and 1927 in order. The Agreement came into effect in 1926.
Turk-Bulgarian Friendship Agreement states that diplomatic relations are set up, as being created with the same manner with the other countries. This will be very sound and hormonious with the principles of laws between countries. It also states an trade agreement, residence contract and referee agreement will be made. The Ankara Agreement, hovewer is old, has validity in these days.
Together with a friendship agreement in Ankara, a residence permit contract has been signed. The first trade agreement would be signed in 1928. The Neutrality, reaching an understanding, judicial settling and referee agreement also would be signed in 1929 and these would be followed by the other agreements on different issues.
Ankara Agreement together with its extras and residence permit contract went into effect in the day of August seventeenth in 1926.
After Tzankov government was recognized by European Countries, Turkey had changed her attitude and stated that she wanted to start diplomatic realtions. Turkish committee wanted the problems which remained in suspense during the war to be solved in oder to get diplomatic relations started. But Bulgarian government stated that firstly diplomatic relations sould be established, after the problems were solved. In conclusion, Turkish government’s request was accepted.
The decisions on especially minority schools in Turkey and Bulgaria, Turkish immigrants and the minorities were not made in the meeting between Bulgarian and Turkish committees. Since meetings took long time, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk felt no pleasure. Finaly a conclusion was reached and Turk-Bulgarian Friendship Agreement was signed in October 25 in 1925.
The Friendship Agreement with date of October 18 in 1925 has given a new direction to the Turks-Bulgarian relations. This agrement along with the other agreements caused the economic, cultural and legal relations to be more powerful. The frienship agreement and general protocol, a part of the very agreement helped the Turks in Bulgaria to protect their rights and guarantee the same rights. The Turks’ rights were based on Neuilly agreement signed in 1919.
After the Friendship Agreement signed in 1925, in order to improve the relations with Bulgaria, some reciprocal ambassadors were appointed. Together with this just mentioned, a trade agreement was signed in 1928 between Turkey and Bulgaria.
Türks-Bulgarian Friendship Agrement have made a decision about the rights of Turk minorities in Bulgaria which The Neuilly Agrement covers the rights of Bulgarian minorities in Turkey which Lozan Agreement include. According to this agreement, the minorities in both Turkey and Bulgaria could migrate by taking their movable properties.
The neutrality, conciliatory, legal solution and referee agrement Between Turks and Bulgar (1929)
This agrement made the connections established by Turk and Bulgar Friendship agreement very forceful. Agreement’s first section states that there will be no attempt contrary to Friendship agrement which ensures peace, sincerity and endless friendships. As for second section, it is suggested that whenever there exist some attacks to countries in question, the other will be impartial.
Friendship between Turks and Bulgars has never ended in spite of friendship between Turk and Greek which developed after 1930 and Balkan Treaty. This condition kept on when the German advenced to Balkan. The shared declaration issued by two countries confirms the liabilities of the agreements signed in 1925 and 1929.
The Agrement (1929) comes into effect for five year period. Although there existed a condition that it would be in practice, its validity extended by five year in a date (december thirth in 1934) when it was expired.
Happenings after 1925 and the Turks in Bulgaria
A new era for the Turks in Bulgaria was starting after the farming party was taken away from power by a coup. The turkish minority had a difficult times thanks to fascism and economic crisis in 1929.
Economic conditions mostly affected the Turks because eigthy per cent of them was living on agriculture. But what it is interesting is that Bulgar government made out an invoice to the Turks by taxing and abolishing the Turkish schools’ funds. To evaluate these things and to make some shared decisions, The Turkish minorities held a congress in Sofia in 1929. A commitee composed of deputies, Mehmet Ali Giray from Preslav, Mehmet Sait from Eski Cuma, Hafız Sadık from Ruscuk, Agusoglu Hafiz Emin from Paşmaklı, Ali Mustafa from Kırcaali, Hüseyin Hacı Galip from Koşukavak, was determined.
Important decisions on the finacial sources of Turkish schools and heavy taxes on Turkish people have been made in this congress. In addition, some subjects regarding opening Turkish Teacher School abolished in 1926, building new schools by the help of state and municipalities, starting the education of Turkish schools closed, teaching in Turkish alphabet have been discussed in the same congress too. Turk-Bulgar relations beginning with Friendship Agreement in 1925 lasted step by step after the economic crisis. Likwise, some of journalists, consisting of six People, among them Falih Rıfkı and Necmettin Sadık were, went to Bulgaria and made some dialogs in Agust second in 1930.
In 1930 Boris King got engaged with the girl of İtalian King. He was turning with his fiancé by the way of sea. He was to pass the traits and Marmara sea. When Atatürk heared this news, He took action and got the needed measures in order to meet the king with ceremony. If the king and his fiancé came to İstanbul, they would stay in Dolmabahce and a war vessel would meet and greet the king and his fiancé and they would be escorted until Burgaz offshores were reached. This nice gesture made Bulgar people very happy. The correspondence between Atatürk and the king has lasted until the time when Atatürk died.
What nonaggression agreement was made between Turks and Greek in 1933 caused Bulgar to feel that they took the aim against to. To correct this misunderstanding, İsmet Inonu together with a committee visited to Bulgaria. As a result of that visit, the nonaggresion agreement was extended by five year.
Close diplomatic relations Between Turks and Greeks made the opinion of unity in Balkan a current issue. On these happennings, the first Balkan congress was held in 1930 Athen. Turkey, Yugoslavia, Greece, Albania, Romania and Bulgaria participated to this congress. The congress was held in 1931 in İstanbul, in1932 in Bükreş, in 1933 in Selanik.
On the happennings between Turkey and Grece made Bulgaria worried, Ismet Inonu, the prime minister and Tevfik Rustu Aras, the minister of foreign affairs, visited Sofia in 1933 in order to remove the worries Bulgaria had. As a result of these meetings, neutrality agrement between Turkey and Bulgaria extended for five year. These developments were followed by Turkey and Romania’s friendship, nonaggresion, refree and conciliatory agreement signed in 1933 in Ankara, and Turkey and Yogoslavia’s friendship, nonaggression, refree and concilatory agreement signed in Belgrad in 1933.
The made bilateral agrements laid the groundwork for Balkan Entente and showed how much Turkey was very responsive element in balancing the unity in Balkan.
Cooperation in Balkan and Balkan Entente
When Turkey joined to United Nations, she caused balkan countries to become closer and to cooperate. Because of this development, an agreement, called as Balkan Entente, came on the scene. The basis of becoming closer among Balkan countries is What Turk sand Greece became close. While Turkey internationally trıed to improve good diplomatic relations in the world, she was also doing the same thing among Balkan countries. To make the relations which were interrupted for a long time, Turkey made bileteral friendship agreements. These were egreement signed with Albania in Ankara in 1923, with Bulgaria in 1925, and with Yugoslavia in 1925.
While Turkey were correcting her reletions with Balkan countries, countries in Balkan solved their proplems they shared. As a result of these developments, the relations among Balkan countries reformed and an environment where there exist some attemps in making cooperation came to light.
So, The first Balkan confernece wes held in Athen in 1930 in which Turkey, Yugoslavia, Romania, Albania and Bulgaria were participated. After that conference, the second, third and fourth one were held in order in İstanbul in 1931, in Bukres in 1932, and in Selanik in 1933.
An friendship and nonaggression agreement between Turkey and Yugoslavia was signed in 1933 when Turkish minister of foreign affairs visited Belgrad. The reasons Yugoslavia signed that agreement were the worry that Bulgaria had caused and the danger that Yogoslavia had felt was created by İtalia by controling Albania. As it easily is seen, Turkey was axis in forming these bileteral agreements.
The all thing was the need to sign one agreement because all three agreement had the same porpuse. With that agreemet, all sides agreed that there would be no diplomatic agreement with the other without cunsulting to each other and their borders were under security.
After these conferences, some decisions were made about cooperations in different areas among Balkan countries, but the political unity was not ensured. What Albania and Bulgaria inderectly insested to change the stastus qua in Balkan made the other Balkan countries became diplomaticly closer. Especially foreign politic of Germany and İtalia after the beginnings of 1930’s made these cooperation became very poverful.
As a result, Turkey, who wanted the pace to be powerful, signed a sincere agreement pact with Greece in Ankara in 1933. After that, one documant which made the agreement signed in Sofia in 1933 extending for five year signed with Bulgaria. These were followed by Turkey-Romania’s Friendship, Nonaggession, conciliation and refree agreement signed in Ankara in 1933 and Turkey-Yugoslavia’s Friendship, Nonaggession, conciliation and refree agreement signed in Belgrad in 1933.
In this way, with bilateral agreements which Turkey made, five Balkan countries inderectly agreed, being the base of Balkan Entente. Yet Bulgaria, who wanted to change the Neuilly Agreement (1919) in her favor, liked to be excluded from this alliance, although some countries insisted tos tay.
Finaly, in 1934, Balkan Entente was signed in Athen in order to make the peace in Balkan very forceful. The aim of entente was to protect the borders and to get some measures against countries who wanted to change stastus qua in Balkan peninsula.
The End of Balkan Entente
The unity formed in 1934 in Balkan excluding Bulgaria and Albania was short-lived. Turkey started to form her security system because Hitler was affective in Europe and İtalia in the Mediterranean sea after Balkan entente was found. The Traits, which was very important in times of war conditions, was guarenteed by the Montro Agreement signed in 1936. This succes was due to political attempts.
With this agreement, Yugoslavia slovly became distant from Balkan Entente and signed an agreement with İtalia, becoming nearer to pivot countries. On the other hand, that the government formed in Romania had no place toTiteluscu harmed Balkan Entente in large measure.
Together with the entente, a secret protocol was signed. To this protocol, if a Balkan country came under attact from a NonBalkan country and A Balkan country helped to Nonbalkan country, then all the other countries in Balkan together would start a war to country in Balkan. But with this protocol, Turkey stated to Russia that if there existed a war between Romania and Russia, She did not help to Romania and the same thing was valid between Greece and İtalia.
Although Yugoslavia get the hormony of other Balkan countries before Bulgar and Yugoslavia agreement was signed, Bulgaria was in the first place in Balkan Entente. Then Bulgar and Yugoslavia agreement was contrary to the spirit of entente. Finally, Greece followed soft attitude against İtalia because İtalia gained in strength. Small entente was ended due to Munih Conference so, the events in 1939 pulled Balkan entente to pieces.
Münih agreement, the cause of pulling Checoslavakia to pieces, was effevtive in bringing to an end to small entente too. The events in Balkan and in the World after 1939 put de facto end to Balkan entente. Balkan entente, which held the last meeting in 1940, could not meet again thanks to wars in Balkan.
Writings ıssued after Balkan Entente’s Signing in Bulgarian Press
Alexander Gancev, who observed Turkish military maneuvers, write these things on signature of Montreux agreement in Slovo Sofia with the date of september fourth in 1937:
The beggest success of republic of Turkey, leaded by Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, was the signing of Montreux Agrement, which had caused the key to the Straits to be given back to Turkey, and which came after military victory of Sakarya. That big diplomatic success was celebrated with demonstarations in Ankara, meriting the joys of new Turkish Capital. Montreux agrement restored Turkey’s military and diplomatic importance.
After Montreux, Turkey’s military and international meaning was understood fully. It was agreed opun that Turkish government had prepered these conditions, ensuring political success. Together with Turkey’s judical possession on the traits, Turkey nedeed to show that she had the straits that separete Europe from Asia, being more important than the other rights. She also had organized military power, making her to meet all diplomatic problems in the Mediterranean. The first aim of all meneuvers done in the thrace was to show these just mentioned.
Turkey, succesfull in getting some rights for her minorities in Iskenderun event, although the French government patronize Syria, had an important meaning in international political world, since she achieved an active role in the politic of south Europe by entering Balkan Pact, and since Ankara had effect on Asian countries, resulting the signing Asian pact.
Turkish government, which wanted her rights and privileges on her neighboring countries to be reinforced, had made a big demonstration in the front of her allies and all friendly countries in order to show her political importance and great success. These were ended with gleaming crossing ceremony made in Edirne and Istanbul in the presence of her general staff.
One of Bulgarian authorized persons, who stated that he was very happy in seeng Turkey’s all success, says like that: Turkey and Bulgaria maintains the charecteristic ability and merit as in 1912-1913 as a anemy and as in 1915-1918 as a ally. It is certain that these are due to relations, with matual trust and respect.
Newspaper, Timpul writes on the occasion of Balkan Entente like this: For five years, Balkan entente has been signed. Since five year, Balkans were completed to be den of mischief and powder keg which encourage dispute in Europe. With four allies signing agreement, the peace was more secured than it was in any place in this part of Europe.
During four year period, the countries belonging Balkan entente proved their joint effort in all events. The last official registration of this is seen in Nyon Conference. The proposal of Balkan entente is acepted as a base on this the last agreement.
Under the climate that Balkan entente had created, Bulgaria and Albania, being excluded from entente, had some policy which was moderate.
Slovo, newspaper of B. Cankof, former prime minister, writes on balkan entente as follows:
Balkan cooperation naturally makes some limited movements obligatory. These countries are Forces to harmonize with present circumstances. In addition, the real intention which Balkan entente had in his forming stage is not present today. Bulgaria, who had been excluded from that entente, have showed great attachment to unity. Bulgaria proves that she wants to live in tranquillity and she follows sencere peace policy. We hope that this reality is indicated in Ankara council.
The comment on Ulus, a newspaper with the date of July twentyfiveth in 1923, cited from “La Parole Bulgare” on the traits agreement and Turk-Bulgar Friendship, was very meaningful:
“… We understand the joy of Turkish people very well. The agreement, signed on the shores of Leman lake on the twentyth in this mounth, was the statement of merit that Kemal Atatürk has achieved for his country. Serv agreement, apart from result in losing some provences, not only caused the traits to be given to Greece settled in Istanbul and Catalca, but also caused to Bogazici and Canakkale to be left to the agreement fleets. But the great victory burried the Serv and Serv was replaced with Lozan Agreement. Turkey again had the two shores of the traits and Canakkale. Although she was victorous, Turkey had to sign a special agreement which was threatening her security and limiting her rights on the traits. This regime, with signing Montreux agreement, was removed. Turkey again obtained the rigth of defending the traits militarily.
The Great liberation, which started with military victory in 1922, was completed with Mustafa Kemal’s diplomatic victory. But, a just liberation principle winned the victory, meaning that the agreemnets not applicable changes with the peace. Turkey did not benefit from Europe’s bad conditions. Consequently, she did not single-sidedly abolish the Lozan. Turkey choosed legal way and put forward the problem of Lozan’s agreement reexzamination by making United Nations’ nineteenth sections’ decisions to be rememebered.
All countries realted directly this conditions appricated this way that Ankara government had preferred. They welcomed to the diplomatic attempt in a very suitable manner. Then the Turkey’s thesis was morally obtained. The internationally esteem, her alliances and friendships that Turkey had, together with her minister of foreign affairs’a ability made very easy to reach result obtained yesterday at Montreux.
The thesis, directly related to Bulgaria from every direction and with international importance, was solved at Montreux. But two thoughts dominated the other and from beginnings these determined the Bulgarian government’s situation. For Bulgaria, one of these thoughts was that friendships and thurts that two countrieas had were more importnat than Montreux’s decisons were. Bulgaria, a sea locked country, helped to Turkey without taking account of her demand limiting the the traits’ international sea passages. We hoped that Turk-Bulgar friendship would become more powerful after Montruex.
As for the other thought, it was morally in nature. Bulgaria felt morally that Turkey, under non equal regime which was established by Neuilly agreement, needed some helps in being succesful from getting red of foreign control. With dominating the traits and making them militarilezed, causing national security to be very strong, Turkey had equality and judical principle victory. Bulgaria and the other defeated small countries had a right to be very happy for that victory and they also had the right to think that victory was like their own”.
The same newspapers, issued one day before, translating the words of beardless Ivanof who said that there existed no harm of Bulgaria and Yugoslavia friendship to any country, said ragarding Turk-Bulgar relations as follows:
“Although there was no suitable conditions needed to improve the relations between Bulgaria and her neighboring countries, but that these conditions were certainly becaming ripe was beyond doubt, and that Bulgar and Yogoslavia approach was not limiting factor in such a cooperation was becoming more and more evident. We had no problem with Turkey to be solved. Our relations were becoming more and more friendly. The Traits problem gave an opportunity to Bulgarian government to openly show her confident and friendly feelings to her neigbhoring country, Turkey”.
The victory of Turkish indepedence caused Bulgarian public-opinon to be direct to new Turkish Republic in the years to come. Many scientists and entellectual settings did not hide their feelings on who Mustafa Kemal was and on changes that he had made. They stated their feelings in what they had written. The leading one was S.Bobcev, famous Bulgarian scholar, writing and deeply researching on Turkish Republic. S. Bobcev, before Turk-Russian wars, attained for the high school and medical academy in Istanbul.
Educated in Turkey and with broad knowledge on Turkish history and culture, S. Bobcev the first time traslated the new main law into Bulgarian and written and made comments on Kemalist reforms in some periodicals. About Young Turkish Republic: “Turkish republic….taking young steps toward reforms with every direction. Turkey, becoming new to European standards, has given up external signs of being Asian.
Ivan Georgiev Altınov is of another Bulgarian scholar who has writen on Indepedence Struggle and Atatürk’s revolutions. Being law professor at Sofia University, and a reporter member of Bulgarian Scientific Academy, Ivan Altınov has written a monography with the title of Sofia, The East question and new Turkey, by taking account of Bulgarian the benefits. In this monography, he also writen on Atatürk’s personality and plece affect of Turkish people in that struggle, and giong on saying that: “ Apart from peculiar quality, national activity in Turkey has this charecteristic: It depends on one’s name from the beginnings. This activity was directly under the penetration of Mustafa Kemal’s personality, founding the nation. For those looking for a person affecting directly to the World, I don’t think that there is no typical event in influencing to the East but Mustafa Kemal. Her face totally enlivens the national activity giving birth in Anatolia. Without her basic and certain motive, ıt would be very diffucult to make some distinct initiatives with the aim of overcoming dificulities united…” 
About purıfying Turkish from alien elements, being not linguist, but educated in Turkey and knowing Turkisk very well, supporting the renewals cultural in nature, St. Bobcev thinks that discarding the arabic and persian words which has bacame property of turkish word treasure from Turkish is not acceptable. He goes on saying that it should be admitted that it would seem that it is exceeding the limit in these attempts.
For Bulgarian scholars and Bulgar people, it was natural to positively think on success in National Struggle, founder of Turkİsh Republic, Mustafa Kemal’s personality, radical changes in education and culture etc, and obtaining great success. Many of Bulgarian scholars, who gave some information to Bulgar people, and pozitively evaluted the reforms, were statemen who had jobs in state institutions, establishments, governments and ministries, who were deputes in Bulgar National Assembly, and who had the rights to direct the country’s national policy. They played very important role in the ralations between the Bulgar and Turk too.
Turkey, having dificulties from minorities living in her lands, being betrayed by them, putting to the end to the problems by making the country to become Turk, declared that she demanded no land in nowhere even in the Balkan.
Bulgaria improves the relations with a state, which holding the way to the Mediterranean, which playing very important povewful role among her neigbhoring countries.
In these days we long for love and matual friendship, two brother and friend countres will feel confiedence in the future by the help of friendship and sincerity in economic, political and cultural cooperation.
Ø This paper was presented in Burgas, “Prof. Dr. Assen Zlatarov University, Faculty of Social Science, International Conference, Education Science, Economics and Technologies in the Global World”, 14th -16th September, 2007, Bulgaria
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 Hakov, 1275
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 The same page
 Soysal, 253; Düstur: C. VIII, 2481 (1376)
 Look for the Turkish and French text of Turk-Bulgar Friendship agrement and Residence Permit Contact with the date of may thirthyth in 1926 and with the law of number of 847 approved by Turkish Grand National Assembly: Düstur, Ter: III., C. 7, S. 2481 (1376)
 Soysal, 261
 Hakov, 1278
 Stefan Velikov, “Kemal Atatürk ve Bulgaristan”, (VIII. Türk Tarih Kongresi), Ankara 1983, 1873
 Look at İsmail Soysal, Türkiye’nin Siyasal Antlaşmaları I, (1920-1945), T.T.K. Yay., Ankara 1983, 255-257
 Soysal, 373;
 Memişoğlu, 313
 Memişoğlu, 316
 Bilal Şimşir, Atatürk ve Yabancı Devlet Başkanları, T.T.K. Yay., I, Ankara 1993, 23
 Velikov, 1874
 Rifat Uçar, Siyasi Tarih (179-1999), Filiz Kitabevi, İstanbul 2000, 579
 Look for the texts of agreement matually made, Soysal, 435-446
 Look for the text of agreement, Soysal, 454-458
 Uçarol, 580
 Mehmet Gönlübol, Atatürk ve Türk Dış Politikası, Ankara 1997, 126
 Alexander Gançev is of military reporter of Slovo newspaper and reserved colonel in general staff
 Yabancı Gözüyle Cumhuriyet Türkiyesi; Dahiliye Vekaleti, Matbuat Umum Müdürlüğü Neşriyatından, Ankara 1938, 145
 Yabancı Gözüyle Cumhuriyet Türkiyesi, 145-146
 Yabancı Gözüyle Cumhuriyet Türkiyesi, 146
 Yabancı Gözüyle Cumhuriyet Türkiyesi, 188-189
 Yabancı Gözüyle Cumhuriyet Türkiyesi, 189
 Yabancı Gözüyle Cumhuriyet Türkiyesi, 212-213
 Yabancı Gözüyle Cumhuriyet Türkiyesi, 213
 Yenisoy, 183-184.
 Yenisey, 185.